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As organizational issues are more frequently the cause of the problem, it is crucial to accurately perform the business processes analysis phase, as well as the final testing. The identified problems served as the basis for designing and programming an application programming interface API aimed at addressing certain application needs of the companies, i.

The API has been designed and programmed with a view to resolving the problems with inconsistencies and synchronization and reducing business operations costs. Recent advances in the API quality program. The API evaluation procedures, described in this paper, provide consistency in evaluation and should allow full participation of petroleum equipment suppliers in the worldwide market during the ‘s and into the 21st century.

The program’s flexibility will allow it to cope with significant changes resulting from the planned European Common Market’s Global Approach to Certification and Testing scheduled to occur in Cell Collective www. All rights reserved. Existing ways of accessing data from the Reactome database are limited. Either a researcher is restricted to particular queries defined by a web application programming interface API , or they have to download the whole database.

Reactome Pengine is a web service providing a logic programming based API to the human reactome. This gives researchers greater flexibility in data access than existing APIs , as users can send their own small programs alongside queries to Reactome Pengine. This paper reports that oil field equipment and product manufacturers can maintain a competitive advantage and minimize costs by integrating American Petroleum Institute API licensing programs with International Standards Organization ISO standards under one quality system.

A combined quality system approach can position a company for quality system certification under ISO while maintaining API specifications. Furthermore, only one quality system manual is needed for API licensing and ISO certification, avoiding duplication of effort. The benefits of a documented quality program include the flowing: Job descriptions and personnel qualification requirements are documented; The improved documentation allows direct tracing of specific production activities; Laboratory test methods and calibration of test equipment follow accepted standards for more reliable and reproducible test data; Quality control becomes proactive, not reactive, through internal process controls previously not implemented; Employee attitudes improve through appreciation for the overall goals of the company; Ambiguous quality issues, such as documenting special customer requirements, are easily resolved; and The company image improves with customers, particularly for those that require API Specification Q1 or ISO compliance or those having their own quality performance standards.

APIS consists of i a high level database, built from planetary auroral observations acquired by the Hubble Space Telescope HST since with its mostly used Far-Ultraviolet spectro- imagers, ii a dedicated search interface aimed at browsing efficiently this database through relevant conditional search criteria Figure 1 and iii the ability to interactively work with the data online through plotting tools developed by the Virtual Observatory VO community, such as Aladin and Specview.

We will present the updated capabilities of APIS with several examples. Several tutorials are available online. Drug Interaction API. No license is needed to use the Interaction API. The U. Geological Survey USGS Library, where the author serves as the digital services librarian, is increasingly challenged to make it easier for users to find information from many heterogeneous information sources.

Information is scattered throughout different software applications i. How could the library integrate the functionalities of one application with another and provide a single point of entry for users to search across? To improve the user experience, the library launched an effort to integrate the federated search engine into the library’s intranet website.

The result is a simple search box that leverages the federated search engine’s built-in application programming interfaces APIs. In this article, the author describes how this project demonstrated the power of APIs and their potential to be used by other enterprise search portals inside or outside of the library. Manduchi, G. The MDSplus data acquisition and management software package is widely used in the international fusion research community. Its core Application Programming Interface API remained unchanged since the system was ported to a multi platform environment in the late nineties.

Originally written in C, the MDSplus API did not fully exploit several object-oriented features of the system that were included in the original architecture. A generic, language-independent class structure has been defined and modeled in UML. Fortran 90 and Matlab interfaces are foreseen in The new API provides: – Data Type Management, allowing the full exploitation of the rich set of data types defined in MDSplus by means of composition of data object instances; – Pulse file access, for writing and reading data objects as well as managing database components properties.

The definition of a language-independent class organization allows the MDSplus Object API be consistent across all the object oriented languages that will be supported. Regardless of the language used, this approach provides a much more natural programming interaction with MDSplus.

Moreover, the UML graphical definition proved an effective and unambiguous way of documenting the system components. This document is composed of an abstract followed by the presentation transparencies. Data analyses included descriptive statistics, bivariate exploration for model building and multivariate analyses to determine variables associated with HIV- testing intentions.

Electromagnetic Interface Testing Facility. Castello Branco, J. E-mails: joaofcb uol. E-mail: engenharia btwbr. E-mail: lfelipe cefet-rj.

X80 grade steel , produced by the well-known UOE production process, for pipeline fabrication. Three types of electrodes were utilized for the basic tasks; the root pass, the hot pass and fill and cap passes. The root pass was carried out with an E electrode to avoid incomplete joint penetration. The hot pass, applied over the root pass, was performed with an EG electrode.

The fill and cap passes were executed with EG electrodes. The welded joints produced were evaluated according to the API specification, which requires: side bend, nick- break and tensile tests. Additionally, non-destructive tests , Charpy-V impact tests and metallographic characterization were undertaken. It was verified that this welding procedure, based on three types of electrodes, could produce welded joints in accordance to the API specification.

X80 steel developed in this research project for use in pipeline construction. Tyrimui pasirinkti du nemokami gaminiai: Microsoft Detours ir EasyHook bibliotekos. The paper describes methods how to apply Windows API hooking with third party libraries and solutions.

Libraries methods, features and advantages were discussed in this paper. The practical part contains libraries tests. In analysis we tested target program start with hooking library and injected function call. Effects of Nosema apis , N. Western honey bees Apis mellifera face an increasing number of challenges that in recent years have led to significant economic effects on apiculture, with attendant consequences for agriculture.

Nosemosis is a fungal infection of honey bees caused by either Nosema apis or N. The putative greater virulence of N. Little is known of effects of N. Following a Pavlovian model that relies on the proboscis extension reflex, we compared acquisition learning and long-term memory recall of uninfected control honey bees versus those inoculated with N. We also tested whether spore intensity was associated with variation in learning and memory.

Neither learning nor memory differed among treatments. There was no evidence of a relationship between spore intensity and learning, and only limited evidence of a negative effect on memory; this occurred only in the co-inoculation treatment. Our results suggest that if Nosema spp.

ADS 2. Chyla, R. The ADS platform is undergoing the biggest rewrite of its year history. While several components have been added to its architecture over the past couple of years, this talk will concentrate on the underpinnings of ADS’s search layer and its API. Taking one step further, we will discuss how we plan to expose the treasure trove of information hosted by ADS 10 million records and fulltext for much of the Astronomy and Physics refereed literature to partners interested in using this API.

This will provide you and your intelligent applications with access to ADS’s underlying data to enable the extraction of new knowledge and the ingestion of these results back into the ADS. Using this framework, researchers could run controlled experiments with content extraction, machine learning, natural language processing, etc. In this talk, we will discuss what is already implemented, what will be available soon, and where we are going next.

Resolution and sensitivity of the eyes of the Asian honeybees Apis florea, Apis cerana and Apis dorsata. Bees of the genus Apis are important foragers of nectar and pollen resources. Although the European honeybee, Apis mellifera, has been well studied with respect to its sensory abilities, learning behaviour and role as pollinators, much less is known about the other Apis species.

We studied the anatomical spatial resolution and absolute sensitivity of the eyes of three sympatric species of Asian honeybees, Apis cerana, Apis florea and Apis dorsata and compared them with the eyes of A. Of these four species, the giant honeybee A. Moreover, unlike the strictly diurnal A. However, the eyes of the facultatively nocturnal A. The differences in sensitivity between the eyes of A.

We assume that additional neuronal adaptations, as has been proposed for A. Reactions of cultures were determined after 5 h of incubation at 35 degrees C. The addition of a test for novobiocin susceptibility to the API system increased the accuracy of identification of S.

Several strains of S. The DIRAC framework for distributed computing has been designed as a flexible and modular solution that can be adapted to the requirements of any community. Some communities have developed their own software solutions for handling their specific workload, and would like to use DIRAC as their back-end to access distributed computing resources easily. Many of these solutions are not coded in python or depend on a specific python version.

Any language with libraries to issue standard HTTP queries may use it. However GSI proxies are not a widely adopted standard. Investigating an API for resilient exascale computing. Stearley, Jon R. Increased HPC capability comes with increased complexity, part counts, and fault occurrences. As faults occur and propagate throughout hardware and software layers, pervasive noti cation and handling mechanisms are necessary. This report describes an initial investigation of fault types and programming interfaces to mitigate them.

Proof-of-concept APIs are presented for the frequent and important cases of memory errors and node failures, and a strategy proposed for lesystem failures. While a single API for fault handling among hardware and OS and application system-wide remains elusive, the e ort increased our understanding of both the mountainous challenges and the promising trailheads.

API testing program – calibration of microprocessor based flowmeters for integrated metering systems. Microprocessor based flowmeter technologies for liquids, such as Coriolis mass meters, and Ultrasonic flowmeters hold great promise. These technologies offer many advantages, such as no rotating parts, self-diagnostic checks, which can help anticipate and warn of impending failures before they have a major impact on the measurement.

These meters are substantially different though than other primary devices due to their heavy reliance on the accompanying secondary electronics. One method to prove that they are accurate would be proving the flowmeter, using a pipe prover or small volume prover SVP , but these proving methods are designed to count ‘real time’ pulses from a turbine or PD meter between a known volume, they are not designed to count ‘time delayed’ ‘manufactured pulses’ from a microprocessor.

There are limitations of the manufactured pulse train and it affects the ability of the flowmeter to be proved using current proving technology. The author of this paper, a chairman of an American Petroleum Institute working group, investigated how the ‘microprocessor generated pulses’ produced by these types of flowmeters, interacted with the existing measurement technologies in use today. Several microprocessor based flowmeter technologies have been tested , including; Ultrasonic, Coriolis, and Helical Turbine with pulse multiplying preamplifier.

Wherever possible, flowmeters of various sizes, and from several vendors have been tested. A significant amount of data has been collected which sheds light into why these types of flowmeters are sometimes difficult to prove. This paper describes the API testing program, and the methodology behind it. The preparation of an amorphous solid dispersion ASD by dissolving a poorly water-soluble active pharmaceutical ingredient API in a polymer matrix can improve the bioavailability by orders of magnitude.

Commonly, the impact of crystalline API on the drug release of the dosage form is studied with samples containing spiked crystallinity. These spiked samples possess implicit differences compared to native crystalline samples, regarding size and spatial distribution of the crystals as well as their molecular environment.

In this study, we demonstrate that it is possible to grow defined amounts of crystalline API in solid dosage forms, which enables us to study the biopharmaceutical impact of actual crystallization.

For this purpose, we studied the crystal growth in fenofibrate tablets over time under an elevated moisture using transmission Raman spectroscopy TRS. Once the kinetic trace of the crystal growth for a certain environmental condition is determined, this method can be used to produce samples with defined amounts of crystallized API.

To investigate the biopharmaceutical impact of crystallized API , non-QC dissolution methods were used, designed to identify differences between the various amounts of crystalline materials present.

The drug release in the samples manufactured in this fashion was compared to that of samples with spiked crystallinity. In this study, we present for the first time a method for targeted crystallization of amorphous tablets to simulate crystallized ASDs. This methodology is a valuable tool to generate model systems for biopharmaceutical studies on the impact of crystallinity on the bioavailability. Its objective is to deliver a common control as infrastructure for the CERN accelerators by year It implements a detailed model composed of devices organized in named classes that provide a property-based interface.

It supports data subscription and introspection facilities. The device model is presented and the capabilities of the API are described with syntax examples. The software architecture is also described. The package has the ability to perform many types of advanced search of the PDB that are otherwise only available through the PDB website.

PyPDB is implemented exclusively in Python 3 using standard libraries for maximal compatibility. The latest stable release is also available on PyPI. Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.

Android quick APIs reference. It presents the essential Android APIs in a well-organized format that can be used as a handy reference. You won’t find any technical jargon, bloated samples, drawn out history lessons, or witty stories in this book. What you will find is a software development kit and APIs reference that is concise, to the point and highly accessible. The book is packed with useful information and is a must-have for any mobile or Android app developer or programmer. To put it into perspective, it is estimated that three petabytes of data storage could store a digitized copy of all printed material in U.

Scientists and the public use this data for research, science education, and to understand our environment. Most importantly these data provide the potential for all of us make new discoveries.

NASA is about making discoveries. Galileo was quoted as saying, “All discoveries are easy to understand once they are discovered. The point is to discover them. This paper examines an approach to create web applications that serve NASA data in ways that specifically address the mobile web application technologies that are quickly emerging. Mobile data is not a new concept. What is new, is that user driven tools have recently become available that allow users to create their own mobile applications.

Through the use of these cloud-based tools users can produce complete native mobile applications. Thus, mobile apps can now be created by everyone, regardless of their programming experience or expertise. This work will explore standards and methods for creating dynamic and malleable application programming interfaces APIs that allow users to access and use NASA science data for their own needs.

The focus will be on experiences that broaden and increase the scope and usage of NASA science data sets. API adoption in both consumer and enterprises has gone beyond predictions. It has become the ‘coolest’ way of exposing business functionalities to the outside world. Both your public and private APIs , need to be protected, monitored and managed.

Security is not an afterthought, but API security has evolved a lot in last five years. The growth of standards, out there, has been exponential. Adaptive runtime for a multiprocessing API.

A computer-implemented method includes selecting a runtime for executing a program. The runtime includes a first combination of feature implementations, where each feature implementation implements a feature of an application programming interface API.

Execution of the program is monitored, and the execution uses the runtime. Monitor data is generated based on the monitoring. A second combination of feature implementations are selected, by a computer processor, where the selection is based at least in part on the monitor data. The runtime is modified by activating the second combination of feature implementations to replace the first combination of feature implementations.

The Proteins API : accessing key integrated protein and genome information. The Proteins API provides searching and programmatic access to protein and associated genomics data such as curated protein sequence positional annotations from UniProtKB, as well as mapped variation and proteomics data from large scale data sources LSS.

Using the coordinates service, researchers are able to retrieve the genomic sequence coordinates for proteins in UniProtKB. This, the LSS genomics and proteomics data for UniProt proteins is programmatically only available through this service. A Swagger UI has been implemented to provide documentation, an interface for users, with little or no programming experience, to ‘talk’ to the services to quickly and easily formulate queries with the services and obtain dynamically generated source code for popular programming languages, such as Java, Perl, Python and Ruby.

The Proteins API is a scalable, reliable, fast, easy to use RESTful services that provides a broad protein information resource for users to ask questions based upon their field of expertise and allowing them to gain an integrated overview of protein annotations available to aid their knowledge gain on proteins in biological processes. Metadata is an important entity in the process of cataloging, discovering, and describing Earth science data.

This presentation aims to inform technically savvy clients interested in automating search and ordering of ECHO’s metadata catalog. The audience will be introduced to practical and applicable examples of end-to-end workflows that demonstrate finding, sub-setting and ordering data that is bound by keyword, temporal and spatial constraints.

Interface -based software testing. Full Text Available Software quality is determined by assessing the characteristics that specify how it should work, which are verified through testing. If it were possible to touch, see, or measure software, it would be easier to analyze and prove its quality.

Unfortunately, software is an intangible asset, which makes testing complex. This is especially true when software quality is not a question of particular functions that can be tested through a graphical user interface. The primary objective of software architecture is to design quality of software through modeling and visualization. There are many methods and standards that define how to control and manage quality. However, many IT software development projects still fail due to the difficulties involved in measuring, controlling, and managing software quality.

Software quality failure factors are numerous. Examples include beginning to test software too late in the development process, or failing properly to understand, or design, the software architecture and the software component structure. To ensure mechanical integrity, all pressure vessels shall be inspected at the intervals provided in inspection codes or based on a risk-based inspection RBI assessment.

The RBI assessment may allow previously established inspection intervals to be extended. This paper describes the methodology, analysis and results of two RBI studies conducted on pressure vessel components in two crude oil distillation units. It was shown that when thinning is the major active damage, the RBI recommended intervals are as long as twice the API intervals.

This paper summarizes that, as a fundamental step in the risk calculation, RBI has a more defined methodology for evaluating equipment for multiple damage mechanisms and a more defined approach to specify the use of other inspection technologies beyond the traditional visual, ultrasonic, and radiography tests.

Web APIs provide a systematic and extensible approach for application-to-application interaction. A large number of mobile applications makes use of web APIs to integrate services into apps. The input With the total solar eclipse of August 21 over the continental United States approaching, the U. This flexible interface returns local circumstances for any solar eclipse in JavaScript Object Notation JSON that can be incorporated into third-party Web sites or applications.

For a given year, it can also return a list of solar eclipses that can be used to build a more specific request for local circumstances. Over the course of a particular eclipse as viewed from a specific site, several events may be visible: the beginning and ending of the eclipse first and fourth contacts , the beginning and ending of totality second and third contacts , the moment of maximum eclipse, sunrise, or sunset.

The computer also reports the duration of the total phase, the duration of the eclipse, the magnitude of the eclipse, and the percent of the Sun obscured for a particular eclipse site. Looking further ahead, a. Healthcare Finder API. There are multiple collections of data available through the API. Full Text Available Nosema ceranae is a pathogen of Apis mellifera, which seems to have jumped from its original host Asiatic honey bee Apis ceranae.

Nosemosis which affects the honey bee Apis mellifera is caused by two parasitic fungi described as etiologic agents of the disease. Nosema apis was the only microsporidian infection identified in A. Nosema spp. Samples were then tested to determine Nosema species N. A multiplex PCR assay was used to differentiate both N. Only N. Following advancements in smartphone and portable global positioning system GPS data collection, wearable GPS data have realized extensive use in transportation surveys and studies.

The task of detecting driving cycles driving or car-mode trajectory segments from wearable GPS data has been the subject of much research. Specifically, distinguishing driving cycles from other motorized trips such as taking a bus is the main research problem in this paper.

Many mode detection methods only focus on raw GPS speed data while some studies apply additional information, such as geographic information system GIS data, to obtain better detection performance. Procuring and maintaining dedicated road GIS data are costly and not trivial, whereas the technical maturity and broad use of map service application program interface API queries offers opportunities for mode detection tasks.

The proposed driving cycle detection method takes advantage of map service APIs to obtain high-quality car-mode API route information and uses a trajectory segmentation algorithm to find the best-matched API route. The car-mode API route data combined with the actual route information, including the actual mode information, are used to train a logistic regression machine learning model, which estimates car modes and non-car modes with probability rates. The experimental results show promise for the proposed method’s ability to detect vehicle mode accurately.

Enhanced OpenModelica Python Interface. It presents how a user can use the Python interface to simulate and access Modelica models using Python objects.

Transcriptome differences in the hypopharyngeal gland between Western Honeybees Apis mellifera and Eastern Honeybees Apis cerana. Apis mellifera and Apis cerana are two sibling species of Apidae.

Apis cerana is adept at collecting sporadic nectar in mountain and forest region and exhibits stiffer hardiness and acarid resistance as a result of natural selection, whereas Apis mellifera has the advantage of producing royal jelly. Finally, a total of genes in Apis mellifera and in Apis cerana were found to exhibit an expression difference among the three developmental stages. A total of DEGs were identified between these two species. Of these, , , and genes showed an expression difference at the newly emerged worker, nurse, and forager stages, respectively.

The nurse stage exhibited the highest number of DEGs between these two species and most of these were found to be up-regulated in Apis mellifera. These results suggest that the higher yield of royal jelly in Apis mellifera may be due to the higher expression level of these DEGs.

Our results indicated that the gene expression difference was associated with the difference in the royal jelly yield between these two species. These results provide an important clue for clarifying the mechanisms underlying hypopharyngeal gland development and the production of royal jelly.

Impact of Nosema ceranae and Nosema apis on individual worker bees of the two host species Apis cerana and Apis mellifera and regulation of host immune response. Nosema apis and Nosema ceranae are obligate intracellular microsporidian parasites infecting midgut epithelial cells of host adult honey bees, originally Apis mellifera and Apis cerana respectively.

Each microsporidia cross-infects the other host and both microsporidia nowadays have a worldwide distribution. In this study, cross-infection experiments using both N. Infection by N. Both N. Infections of both host species with N. In this study, A. We caution against over-interpretation of our results, though, because differences between host and parasite species in survival were insignificant and because size differences between microsporidia species and between host Apis species may alternatively explain the differential proliferation of N.

Kao i sve ostale tehnologije, i ova tehnologija ima svoje nedostatke koji su opisani u radu. Using internet technologies, todays maps are created to be dynamic, and not static as they used to be. This paper defines the concept of using Google Maps API , and explains the steps needed to start developing a mapping software. Like any other technologies, this technology also has weakneses which are described in the paper.

Through testing , it was concluded that manufacturers are not yet fully complied with EXIF standard. So, it is absolutely necessary to test the device and PHP installation before we can be sure that the data from the photo can be read. Web page has been created. Full Text Available that it may allow for a better degree of network programmability. In order to achieve network programmability and automation, there is a need for a metadata based Application Programming Interface API.

The work done in this paper seeks to improve A new object-oriented interface to MDSplus. Its core Application Programming Interface API remained unchanged since the system was ported to a multiplatform environment in the late nineties. The new API provides data type management, allowing the full exploitation of the rich set of data types defined in MDSplus by means of composition of data object instances, and pulse file access, for writing and reading data objects as well as managing database components properties.

The definition of a language-independent class organization allows the MDSplus object-oriented API to be consistent across all the object oriented languages that will be supported. Software quality is determined by assessing the characteristics that specify how it should work, which are verified through testing. The primary objective of softwar The results indicate that the simulation module can fulfill the function of pole-zero adjustment, which means this method is competent for the simulation of CAMAC System.

Compared with the simulation based on LabVIEW, this way is more flexible and closer to the bottom of the system. All the works above have found a path to making the virtual instrument platform based on CAMAC system. Testing of the structure of macromolecular polymer films containing solid active pharmaceutical ingredient API particles.

The data revealed that the size of the free-volume holes and the lifetimes of ortho-positronium atoms decreased with increase of the API concentration. Batista, Gilmar Z. E-mail: g. E-mail: naschpitz protubo. The present work is a part of an extensive program to make possible the application of API 5L X80 in pipeline construction in Brazil. At this stage, the effect of the induction bending process on the microstructure and mechanical properties of the pipe is presented.

The pipe was manufactured from a plate produced by thermo-mechanically controlled rolling without accelerated cooling.

The pipe bending was carried out applying a local induction heating following by water quenching. We compare and discuss the results of the benchmarks with dedicated C implementations. Produtos naturais no comportamento defensivo de Apis mellifera L. The goal was to investigate the influence of natural products such as lemongrass Cymbopogon citratus, dried avocado leaves Persea americana, coffee husk Coffea arabica and castor bean Ricinus communis in the defense of Apis mellifera, as well the effect of these products on the population development of the beehive.

Defensive behavior was evaluated by time of first sting TFS and number of stingers NS, and population development, by open brood area and operculated brood. Regarding NS, it was verified. The database offers an excellent web-based graphical user interface the UCSC genome browser and several means for programmatic queries. A simple application programming interface API in a scripting language aimed at the biologist was however not yet available.

The current version of the API supports databases of all organisms in the UCSC genome database including human, mammals, vertebrates, deuterostomes, insects, nematodes, and yeast.

The API uses the bin index-if available-when querying for genomic intervals. The API is implemented in pure Ruby and is therefore available in different environments and with different Ruby interpreters including JRuby.

The API uses the bin index—if available—when querying for genomic intervals. Full Text Available Metagenomic sequencing has produced significant amounts of data in recent years. With metagenomic sequencing finding even wider adoption in the scientific community, the existing web-based analysis tools and infrastructure in MG-RAST provide limited capability for data retrieval and analysis, such as comparative analysis between multiple data sets.

Moreover, although the system provides many analysis tools, it is not comprehensive. In addition, the API exposes a comprehensive collection of data to programmers. This API , which uses a RESTful Representational State Transfer implementation, is compatible with most programming environments and should be easy to use for end users and third parties. It provides comprehensive access to sequence data, quality control results, annotations, and many other data types.

Where feasible, we have used standards to expose data and metadata. Code examples are provided in a number of languages both to show the versatility of the API and to provide a starting point for users. Metagenomic sequencing has produced significant amounts of data in recent years. Enhancing Collaborative Learning in Web 2. Today, the implication of Web 2. However, in e -learning systems , learn in a collaborative way is not always so easy because one of the difficulties when arranging e -learning courses can be that….

The mechanical properties of submerged arc weldment SAW in gas transportation pipeline steel of grade API X65 65 ksi yield strength were investigated. This steel is produced by thermo mechanical control rolled TMC , and is largely used in Iran gas piping systems and networks. The results from laboratory study on three different regions; i. Different laboratory experiments were conducted on test specimens taken from 48 inch outside diameter and The test results showed a gradient of microstructure and Vickers hardness data from the centerline of FZ towards the unaffected MB.

Despite this, the API specifications were fulfilled in three tested zones, ensuring pipeline structural integrity under working conditions. Foram utilizadas colmeias modelo Langstroth, com sobrecaixa. Conventional computing systems have been able to be integrated into daily objects and connected to each other due to advances in computing and network technologies, such as wireless sensor networks WSNs , forming a global network infrastructure, called the Internet of Things IoT.

To support the interconnection and interoperability between heterogeneous IoT systems , the availability of standardized, open application programming interfaces APIs is one of the key features of common software platforms for IoT devices, gateways, and servers. Based on the oneM2M software platforms developed in the previous project, we introduce a well-designed open API scheme and device-specific thing adaptation software TAS enabling WSN elements, such as a wireless sensor node, to be accessed in a standardized way on a global scale.

Three pilot services are implemented i. Full details on the method of integrating WSN elements into three example systems are described at the programming code level, which is expected to help future researchers in integrating their WSN systems in IoT platforms, such as oneM2M. We hope that the flexibly-deployable, easily-reusable common open API scheme and TAS-based integration method working with the oneM2M platforms will help the conventional WSNs in diverse industries evolve into the emerging WoT solutions.

Full Text Available Conventional computing systems have been able to be integrated into daily objects and connected to each other due to advances in computing and network technologies, such as wireless sensor networks WSNs, forming a global network infrastructure, called the Internet of Things IoT. The biochemical properties of the Arabidopsis ecto-nucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolase At APY 1 contradict a direct role in purinergic signaling.

It was proposed to perform these functions through regulation of extracellular ATP signals. In this study, At APY 1 without the bulky GFP-tag was biochemically characterized with regard to its suggested role in purinergic signaling. Both the full-length protein and a soluble form without the transmembrane domain near the N-terminus were produced in HEK cells.

All three At APY 1 versions exhibited very similar biochemical properties. Of the inhibitors tested, vanadate was the most potent one. Calmodulin stimulated the activity of the GFP-tagless membranous and soluble At APY 1 forms about five-fold, but did not alter their substrate specificities.

A putative three-dimensional structural model of the ecto-domain is presented, explaining the potent inhibitory potential of vanadate and predicting the binding mode of GDP. Amorphous formulations of APIs in polymers tend to absorb water from the atmosphere. This absorption of water can induce API recrystallization, leading to reduced long-term stability during storage. In this work, the phase behavior of different formulations was investigated as a function of relative humidity.

The formulations were prepared by spray drying. These trends could also be predicted in good agreement with the experimental data using the thermodynamic model PC-SAFT. Furthermore, the effect of absorbed water on API solubility in the polymer and on the glass-transition temperature of the formulations was predicted with PC-SAFT and the Gordon-Taylor equation, respectively. The absorbed water was found to significantly decrease the API solubility in the polymer as well as the glass-transition temperature of the formulation.

Beebread from Apis mellifera and Apis dorsata. Comparative Chemical Composition and Bioactivity. Full Text Available Beebread is a valuable bee product, both for bee nutrition and for humans. The high nutritional and bioactive properties of beebread were evaluated by chemical composition analysis of beebread from Apis mellifera and Apis dorsata.

Bee bread harvested from Romania and India, coming from Apis mellifera and Apis dorsata bees, were evaluated for their chemical composition. Lipids were determined by the Soxhlet extraction method, total protein content was determined by Kjehldahl method, sugar spectrum was determined by high performance liquid chromatography with refractive index detection HPLC-IR. Water content of beebread samples were situated between Chemical composition and bioactive properties of beebread is influenced by floral origin of the pollen which the bees collect and place in combs for fermentation.

Also the climatic conditions have an important role in developing different fermentation compounds, that may act as antioxidants or antibacterial agents. OSIRIS runs on cycles of about 25 working days followed by an eight-day shutdown, during which period certain experiments disappear and others are coupled to the system.

To obtain the required flexibility the software of the APIS system is made up of a set of application programs, each attached to a switch level and responsible for part of the work of the system. They all work on a memory zone known as ZCU data zone common to all tasks which contains all the parameters and arguments defining the system and the processing of connected experiments. This zone must be updated whenever the configuration of the system or experiments is changed.

The disadvantages of the present methods used to run the ZCU’s are explained, then the method proposed for their automatic management is outlined and its advantages are discussed. The files processed during this work and the programs used for generation, updating and consultation of a ZCU are presented. Physicochemical analysis of apis dorsata honey from terai forests, Nepal.

These ninety nine Apis dorsata honey samples were characterized physicochemical and were found to have values of various quality determining parameters well with in the permissible International standards. The honey samples had pH in the range of 3. The 17th edition of the American Petroleum Institute’s API document 6A, covering wellheads and their components, is due early next year.

As the API vs. International Standards Organization ISO struggle continues, this edition of 6A eliminates some unnecessary specifications, clarifies others, and includes metric specifications accepted by the ISO.

The 17th edition will clarify some of the interpretations from earlier editions and further advise users how to acquire the API monogram. The goal of this edition is to make 6A acceptable to ISO as an international document so API can maintain control over petroleum equipment specifications and provide input and guidance in future regulations. The generic ISO Series Standards, ”Quality management and quality assurance standards,” were developed at about the same time and were published for public use in By late and into the early nineties, the formation of the European Economic Community and the issuance of the EC Procurement Directives sparked a rush by companies worldwide to comply with all the requirements necessary to do business in Europe.

It is difficult to miss one of the hundreds of newspaper and trade magazine articles promoting the ISO Quality Standards for use in almost every industry. This paper discusses the latest developments of both the lesser known API Spec Q1 and the much publicized ISO as well as discusses some of the similarities and differences between them and possible future trends.

It also reviews some of the strengths and weaknesses of both documents to support the sentiment that API Spec Q1, in conjunction with the API Monogram Program, is the best quality standard for use in ordering equipment, materials and services for the Oil and Gas Industry.

Intro to the Zotero API. The Zotero API is a powerful interface that would allow you to build a complete Zotero client from scratch if you so desired. But like most APIs , it works in small, discrete steps, so we have to build our way up to the complicated requests we might want to use to access our Zotero libraries.

But this incremental building gives us plenty of time to learn as we go along. Full Text Available Bluetooth is a popular method of communication between devices. Many smartphones today have the capability to communicate using Bluetooth. Android developers sometimes need to use Bluetooth in their projects. Android OS provides a powerful API for Bluetooth that allows to simplify scanning the environment for devices, pairing and connecting, data transfer between devices and more.

However, utilizing the Bluetooth API can be difficult for first-time users. The objective of this article is to demonstrate the key points of implementing Bluetooth API in the Android application. Macelignan inhibits bee pathogenic fungi Ascophaera apis growth through HOG1 pathway. Full Text Available Ascosphaera apis is a bee pathogen that causes bee larvae infection disease, to which treatment is not yet well investigated.

The aim of this study was to investigate antifungal susceptibility in vitro against A. Macelignan had 1. Furthermore, macelignan showed a narrow-ranged spectrum against various fungal strains without any mammalian cell cytotoxicity. In spite of miconazole having powerful broad-ranged anti-fungal activity including A. Therefore, even if macelignan alone was effective as an antifungal agent to treat A. Finally, HOG1 was revealed as a target molecule of macelignan in the anti-A.

Based on our results, macelignan, a food-grade antimicrobial compound, would be an effective antifungal agent against A. A new detrended semipartial cross-correlation analysis: Assessing the important meteorological factors affecting API.

To analyze the unique contribution of meteorological factors to the air pollution index API , a new method, the detrended semipartial cross-correlation analysis DSPCCA , is proposed. Based on both a detrended cross-correlation analysis and a DFA-based multivariate-linear-regression DMLR , this method is improved by including a semipartial correlation technique, which is used to indicate the unique contribution of an explanatory variable to multiple correlation coefficients.

The advantages of this method in handling nonstationary time series are illustrated by numerical tests. To further demonstrate the utility of this method in environmental systems , new evidence of the primary contribution of meteorological factors to API is provided through DMLR. Results show that the most important meteorological factors affecting API are wind speed and diurnal temperature range, and the explanatory ability of meteorological factors to API gradually strengthens with increasing time scales.

Shen, Chen-Hua, E-mail: shenandchen01 Integrated platform and API for electrophysiological data. Recent advancements in technology and methodology have led to growing amounts of increasingly complex neuroscience data recorded from various species, modalities, and levels of study.

The rapid data growth has made efficient data access and flexible, machine-readable data annotation a crucial requisite for neuroscientists. Clear and consistent annotation and organization of data is not only an important ingredient for reproducibility of results and re-use of data, but also essential for collaborative research and data sharing. In particular, efficient data management and interoperability requires a unified approach that integrates data and metadata and provides a common way of accessing this information.

In this paper we describe GNData, a data management platform for neurophysiological data. GNData provides a storage system based on a data representation that is suitable to organize data and metadata from any electrophysiological experiment, with a functionality exposed via a common application programming interface API.

Data representation and API structure are compatible with existing approaches for data and metadata representation in neurophysiology. The API implementation is based on the Representational State Transfer REST pattern, which enables data access integration in software applications and facilitates the development of tools that communicate with the service.

Client libraries that interact with the API provide direct data access from computing environments like Matlab or Python, enabling integration of data management into the scientist’s experimental or analysis routines. Calculating the price of tanks, vessels and process equipment of petrochemical industry second criteria of integrity and survival remaining of API RP Fitness for service ; Calculo do preco de tanques, vasos e equipamentos de processo da industria petroquimica segundo criterios de integridade e sobrevida remanescente do API RP Fitness for service.

In this paper we will discuss how to calculate the remaining useful life of equipment used in accordance with such criteria and with this technical data, calculate the depreciated price. Steps: verification of applicability; surveys of the technical data of the equipment; surveys the minimum thickness of plating equipment over the years; calculation of the average annual rate of corrosion tc ; calculation of the required minimum thickness according to the criteria of API RP tr ; calculation of remaining useful life nr ; calculation of the depreciated price Vd equipment.

Conclusions: intended for evaluation of tanks price, vessels and process equipment according to API RP concepts. Estimate the remaining useful life of equipment used and calculates the depreciated price. Scientific method based, consistent and robust, due to calculating established the remaining useful life. However, evidence suggests there may be species-specific sensitivity differences to QMP compounds because Ac workers have higher levels of ovarian activation than Am workers.

As predicted, Am was more sensitive than Ac in all cases 1. In all significantly different cases, Am workers were 4. This work objectified to compare the productivity and the quality of the strawberry marketable fruits in protected environment, using the species of bee Apis mellifera in relation of the absence of a polinizator agent.

It was installed two experiments using the cultivates Camarosa, Oso Grande, Diamante and Aromas treatments, in the period of May 5 th until December 19th of The first experiment did not have polinizatores agents control.

The second was polinizated by the species of bee Apis mellifera. The treatments cultivars had been arranged, in each experiment in a randomized blocks with 6 repetitions. They were evaluated income characteristics, as well as analysis physicist-chemistry of the fruits of each cultivar.

For the income, the biggest production was gotten in cultivar Camarosa, for the first and the second experiment ,46 g. The Brazilian apiculture relies upon collecting wild swarms of Africanized honey bees Apis mellifera L. This practice brings problems such as dependence on nature to capture any swarm, diverse genetic make-up of the colonies captured and the possibility of these swarms be carrying diseases and parasites harmful to the bees. The present work tests and presents a technique to split colonies of Africanized honey bees to produce new strong colonies in short time, departing from little resources of wax, brood and food stores.

Results showed that A. Towards adaptation in e -learning 2. This paper presents several essential steps from an overall study on shaping new ways of learning and teaching, by using the synergetic merger of three different fields: Web 2. These novel teaching and learning ways-the latter focus of this paper-are reflected in and finally adding to various versions of the My Online Teacher 2.

In particular, this paper focuses on a study of how to more effectively use and combine the recommendation of peers and content adaptation to enhance the learning outcome in e -learning systems based on Web 2. In order to better isolate and examine the effects of peer recommendation and adaptive content presentation, we designed experiments inspecting collaboration between individuals based on recommendation of peers who have greater knowledge, and compare this to adaptive content recommendation, as well as to “simple” learning in a system with a minimum of Web 2.

Overall, the results of adding peer recommendation and adaptive content presentation were encouraging, and are further discussed in detail in this paper.

Calculo de incerteza de medicao para amostras de processo, aco classe API. The increase of gas and petroleum demanding in the national and international markets, the specification and certification of the chemical analysis results of gas and oil pipe-line have became more and more challenging. The steel properties depend on the chemical composition control and process parameters during its manufacturing. Usually, this kind of analyze requires less than 40 seconds for full chemical characterization for adjustment in the process parameters production.

The main influence source in the chemical analysis was evaluated for design of experiments. The uncertainty of measurement for each element is discussed for both techniques. Boctor, Emad M. At the same time, however, current lack of open-source and open-architecture multi-modal medical visualization systems prevents 3DUS from fulfilling its potential. Although these systems have been found to be useful in real clinical setting, it is difficult to augment their functionality and integrate them in versatile IGT systems.

In addition, the system capitalizes on generic application programming interfaces APIs for tracking devices and robotic control.

The resulting platform-independent open-source system may serve as a valuable tool to the image guided surgery community. Other researchers could straightforwardly integrate the generic CISUS system along with other functionalities i. Initial functionality and pre-clinical feasibility are demonstrated on phantom and ex-vivo animal models. The U. Geological Survey USGS Library, where the author serves as the digital services librarian, is increasingly challenged to make it easier for users to find information from many heterogeneous information sources.

Information is scattered throughout different software applications i. How could the library integrate the functionalities of one application with another and provide a single point of entry for users to search across?

To improve the user experience, the library launched an effort to integrate the federated search engine into the library’s intranet website. The result is a simple search box that leverages the federated search engine’s built-in application programming interfaces APIs. In this article, the author describes how this project demonstrated the power of APIs and their potential to be used by other enterprise search portals inside or outside of the library.

Nosema spp. Invasive Nosema ceranae is particularly worrisome because some evidence suggests it has greater virulence than its congener N. We examined parasite reproduction and effects of N.

Both infection intensity and honey bee mortality were significantly greater for N. This is the first long-term laboratory study to demonstrate lethal consequences of N. Infra-population and -community dynamics of the parasites Nosema apis and Nosema ceranae, and consequences for honey bee Apis mellifera hosts.

Full Text Available Research about plant visited by Apis forager was conducted at altitude Apis consisted of 61 species belong to 26 families. The number of 36 plant species found at lowland and highland, 20 species only at lowland and five species at highland. Most of plant species visited by Apis forager are Asteraceae and Leguminoceae.

About 29 plant species visited by Apis were agriculture crop and 32 species of non agriculture. Apis andreniformis visited 29 plant species, A. Cucumis sativus was visited by four bee species, Galiansoga farviflora was visited only by A.

Five plant species Rorippa indica, Cinnamomum burmanii, Nasturrium indicum, Rorippa indica and Eryngium foetidum were visited by only A.

Other three plants species Mangifera indica, Cytrus aurantifoliaand Oryza sativa were visited by A. Keywords: lebah madu, Apis forager, food source plant, visit. Web APIs provide a systematic and extensible approach for application-toapplication interaction. In order to understand the distress caused by this imposition on web API client developers we. Jobs API. Recalls API. This dataset continues to grow and currently includes over 14, patients.

The GDC is an example of a biomedical data commons, which collocates biomedical data with storage and computing infrastructure and commonly used web services, software applications, and tools to create a secure, interoperable, and extensible resource for researchers.

The GDC is i a data repository for downloading data that have been submitted to it, and also a system that ii applies a common set of bioinformatics pipelines to submitted data; iii reanalyzes existing data when new pipelines are developed; and iv allows users to build their own applications and systems that interoperate with the GDC using the GDC Application Programming Interface API.

Cancer Res; 77 21 ; e The preparation of amorphous solid dispersions ASDs is a well-established strategy for formulating active pharmaceutical ingredients by embedding them in excipients, usually amorphous polymers. Different polymers can be combined for designing ASDs with desired properties like an optimized dissolution behavior. One important criterion for the development of ASD compositions is the physical stability.

Parameters for modeling the API solubility in the blends and the glass-transition temperature curves of the water-free systems with Perturbed-Chain Statistical Associating Fluid Theory and Kwei equation, respectively, were correlated to experimental data.

Faculdade de Engenharia. The materials that stand in the manufacture of steel pipes are called API , that should have, high mechanical resistance, high corrosion resistance, high fatigue resistance, good weldability, and other properties. The Vickers hardness was performed across the welded joint by 33 points to indentation. The results were: As for hardness, the values were: Improving the API dissolution rate during pharmaceutical hot-melt extrusion I: Effect of the API particle size, and the co-rotating, twin-screw extruder screw configuration on the API dissolution rate.

The dissolution rate of the active pharmaceutical ingredients in pharmaceutical hot-melt extrusion is the most critical elementary step during the extrusion of amorphous solid solutions – total dissolution has to be achieved within the short residence time in the extruder. Dissolution and dissolution rates are affected by process, material and equipment variables. In this work, we examine the effect of one of the material variables and one of the equipment variables, namely, the API particle size and extruder screw configuration on the API dissolution rate, in a co-rotating, twin-screw extruder.

By rapidly removing the extruder screws from the barrel after achieving a steady state, we collected samples along the length of the extruder screws that were characterized by polarized optical microscopy POM and differential scanning calorimetry DSC to determine the amount of undissolved API.

Analyses of samples indicate that reduction of particle size of the API and appropriate selection of screw design can markedly improve the dissolution rate of the API during extrusion. In addition, angle of repose measurements and light microscopy images show that the reduction of particle size of the API can improve the flowability of the physical mixture feed and the adhesiveness between its components, respectively, through dry coating of the polymer particles by the API particles.

Use calibration methods to modify parameter values and other aspects of the model. Compare predictions to regulatory limits. Quantify the uncertainty of predictions based on the results of one or many simulations using inferential or Monte Carlo methods. Determine how to manage the system to achieve stated objectives.

The capabilities provided by the JUPITER API include, for example, communication with process models, parallel computations, compressed storage of matrices, and flexible input capabilities. The input capabilities use input blocks suitable for lists or arrays of data. The input blocks needed for one application can be included within one data file or distributed among many files.

Three simple example applications are presented in this report. Poeter, Mary C. Hill, E. Banta, S. Mehl, and Steen Christensen, written commun. Tonkin, Claire R. Tiedeman, Mary C. Hill, and D. Matthew Ely, written communication, While understanding the organizational concept presented is useful to understanding the modules, other organizational concepts can be used in applications constructed using the JUPITER API.

An Application Programming Interface API provides a set of functionalities to a developer with the aim of enabling reuse. APIs have been investigated from different angles such as popularity usage and evolution to get a better understanding of their various characteristics.

For such studies,. Auditing large, rapidly evolving terminological systems is still a challenge. In the case of RxNorm, a standardized nomenclature for clinical drugs, we argue that quality assurance processes can benefit from the recently released application programming interface API provided by RxNav. We demonstrate the usefulness of the API by performing a systematic comparison of alternative paths in the RxNorm graph, over several thousands of drug entities.

This study revealed potential errors in RxNorm, currently under review. The results also prompted us to modify the implementation of RxNav to navigate the RxNorm graph more accurately. The integration of context-aware applications with spatial context models is often done using a common query language. However, algorithms that estimate and reason about spatial context information can benefit from a tighter integration. An object-oriented API makes such integration possible This paper propose an object-oriented API for context models of the physical environment and extensions to a location modeling approach called geometric space trees for it to provide adequate support for location The utility of the API is evaluated in several real-world cases from an indoor location system , and spans several types of spatial reasoning algorithms Effects of Nosema apis , N.

Western honey bees Apis mellifera face an increasing number of challenges that in recent years have led to significant economic effects on apiculture, with attendant consequences for agriculture. Nosemosis is a fungal infection of honey bees caused by either Nosema apis or N. The putative greater virulence of N. Little is known of effects of N. Following a Pavlovian model that relies on the proboscis extension reflex, we compared acquisition learning and long-term memory recall of uninfected control honey bees versus those inoculated with N.

We also tested whether spore intensity was associated with variation in learning and memory. Neither learning nor memory differed among treatments. There was no evidence of a relationship between spore intensity and learning, and only limited evidence of a negative effect on memory; this occurred only in the co-inoculation treatment.

Our results suggest that if Nosema spp. Stack Overflow is a popular crowdsourced question and answer website for programming-related issues. It is an invaluable resource for software developers; on average, questions posted there get answered in minutes to an hour. Questions about well established topics, e.

On the other hand, questions on previously unseen or niche topics take a while to get a good answer. This is particularly the case with questions about current updates to or the introduction of new application programming interfaces APIs. In a hyper-competitive online market, getting good answers to current programming questions sooner could increase the chances of an app getting released and used. So, can developers anyhow, e. We contrast the interest in these questions, their answer quality, and timeliness of their answers to questions about old APIs.

We find that Stack Overflow answerers in general prioritize with respect to currentness: questions about new APIs do get more answers, but good quality answers take longer. We also find that incentives in terms of question bounties, if used appropriately, can significantly shorten the time and increase answer quality.

Interestingly, no operationalization of bounty amount shows significance in our models. In practice, our findings confirm the value of bounties in enhancing expert participation. In addition, they show that the Stack Overflow style of crowdsourcing, for all its glory in providing answers about established programming knowledge, is less effective with new API questions.

Cell Collective www. We present the DySect API , a tool that allow users to construct probe trees for automatic, event-driven debugging at scale. The traditional, interactive debugging model, whereby users manually step through and inspect their application, does not scale well even for current supercomputers. DySect API fills the gap between these two approaches with a novel user-guided approach. Using both experimental results and analytical modeling we show how DySect API scales and can run with a low overhead Hymenoptera venom allergy: analysis of double positivity to honey bee and Vespula venom by estimation of Ig E antibodies to species-specific major allergens Api m1 and Ves v5.

In patients with hymenoptera venom allergy diagnostic tests are often positive with honey bee and Vespula venom causing problems in selection of venoms for immunotherapy. By CAP sensitivity was 1. Vault: So what are you drawing on to do your job, given that your background is in marketing? I was able to put together from scratch the forecasting models for the business, which are now used every month. Vault: Is there a formal mentorship program component to the program?

Sercovich: Last year, we joined the overall Citi Cards mentorship program, through which the MAs are paired up with a mentor who has been in the company for a while. But I think there is a huge component that is totally infonnal. As an MA, many doors are open, many times you can just call up a senior member of the organization and ask them for some time in their calendar.

They are open to help you, and they give you wise career advice. Vault: So what will you be doing once you finish this rotation?

She talked to us about the program, which has been around for close to 60 years. Preston: For the finance program, we just increased the target this year. The HR program does about four, the marketing program hires about four, supply and trading out of Houston hires about three, global gas is considering starting and MBA program, and procurement hires in the neighborhood of four.

Every group has MBA summer interns. Finance has also increased its intern target, from six to eight; the other programs do between two and four. Vault: How long has the finance MBA program been running? Preston: The program started in The other programs are more recent. Preston: Yes. The former chairman came through the program. The current vice chairman is off the program, our head of international upstream exploration and production , vice president of government and public affairs, and our CFO are all program alumni.

Vault: Is there any crossover between the various MBA programs in terms of rotations? Preston: Not in terms of rotations. Functionally the programs are quite different.

However, we do some joint events. Typically these would be around general industry or company knowledge. For example, we bring in external instructors— last week we had a geophysics professor. Hines from University of Tulsa, lecture about topics from how the earth was formed and how oil was created through to drilling and production of resources.

Vault: In what types of roles and locations are incoming MBA hires for the finance program placed? Six are starting here in California, two are overseas Preston: These two are returning interns. The international component is increasingly important. Vault: How long is the program and how many rotations do employees do? They do three or four rotations. Domestic rotations are typically six months long.

Sometimes the international assignments will be longer, and someone may elect to do three rotations with a longer, more in- depth experience overseas. This is particularly true of people who have interned here. Other people might feel strongly they need to see four different areas while on the program. We always try to maximize the diversity of experience with different business units, and different finance functions.

I get contacted from Chevron businesses all over the world looking for the talent. Every month I send out an update that shows where everyone in the program is in the company, and what opportunities have come in.

Vault: What sort of rotations would they do outside of finance? Preston: Typically people cross over into two areas: planning and business development. The planning roles are corporate strategy roles within the business units—developing the business plan, the strategic plan for the organization, within overall corporate strategy.

The business development roles might be supporting commercial teams looking for new opportunities. Vault: With the program having been in place for so long, there must be a lot of alumni from the program. As the program manager I maintain all that information. We have two to three events a year that pull in all the alumni.

We have a summer cocktail, where people meet the interns and the new hires. This year, the CFO was there, the head of investor relations was there, and other senior people. And every year we do the holiday luncheon and that pulls in all the alumni as well. These are typically in the Bay Area. About a quarter of the alumni are international now. Vault: Is there any resentment among other finance professionals toward what might be thought of as an elite group?

Our industry is enonnously comples, so you have to be humble and learn from the experienced people around you. You also have to be very capable so that you can take these learnings and produce superior results in a short period of time six months or less for the rotations. Vault: Do most of the people who join the program have energy industry experience? Preston: Not necessarily.

A lot of people have finance backgrounds or economics backgrounds. Will they thrive in our culture or clash with it? I then use the second round to push on the technical skills. Can they do the job? We have 90 percent retention over 10 years. Vault: Is there a formal mentoring program? Preston: We do not do a formal mentor matching in the finance program, but some of the other programs do.

Instead, our alumni are very receptive to program members. I facilitate connections and our members find diverse and successful mentoring relationships that way. The defense industry produces a complementary group of goods, including satellites, ships and submarines, tanks and armored vehicles, and guns, bullets, explosives and other weapons.

These industries are closely allied, with companies frequently participating in both spheres. The aerospace industry makes most of its money by supplying individuals and commercial airlines with planes for business or pleasure.

The commercial airline industry is notoriously cyclical, operating at the mercy of the business cycle; factors like the price of airline tickets and terrorism or the threat thereof can also affect the number of people who travel by air—and hence the rate at which airline companies purchase new planes. Take it to the skies The commercial aircraft market is dominated by archrivals Boeing and Airbus, who also have interests in defense contracts- Boeing derived nearly half its revenue from government contracts in , while archrival Airbus is partly owned by EADS, the European Aeronautic Defense and Space Company.

Smaller players, like Textron which owns Cessna , Embraer and Bombardier also have interests in both commercial and military aircraft and technology.

Plane dealing The biggest rivalry in the industry is between U. These companies are the two largest suppliers of large jets to airlines, and the summer of saw them battling it out with their newest offerings. Airbus hopes to tempt buyers from the airlines that ferry large numbers of people between major airports with its A3 80, a double- decker a double-decker plane of Brobdingnagian proportions.

The composite structure also means several passenger-pleasing features, like larger windows and higher cabin pressure and humidity. As of a few days before its official launch, the plane is the fastest-selling commercial airliner yet. China is reveling in its newfound industrial might, and plans to launch its own aircraft manufacturer. Speaking of international relations, the defense portion of the industry has been affected by a wave of large mergers, as well as a shift in the way wars are fought.

Aside from all that getting and spending, the defense industry is also coping with changes in the methods of warfare. Modem battles are unlikely to be fought on a traditional battlefield against a professional army fielded by a government, and to be more like the agonizing and protracted conflict going on in Iraq and Afghanistan. Of course, this means that enormous tanks are out—and smaller, faster and lighter equipment is in.

Automation is also a growing trend. Machines, unlike humans, never need to sleep or eat, are always paying attention, and can be easily repaired or replaced in the event they are damaged. The device, which is about the size of a breadbox, consists of a fan in a cylindrical housing which provides lift as well as a small payload of wireless cameras and other sensors.

The MAV can hover inches above a suspected bomb, allowing it to be more closely examined, or climb to about 10, feet for surveillance of a larger area. Remotely operated sensors are also the latest trend in border surveillance. In , Boeing set up its first mile stretch of monitored border between the U. Aimed at preventing smuggling and illegal immigration, the border security consists of a series of towers outfitted with radar, cameras, loudspeakers and data links.

The towers are tall enough to see over trees and other obstacles, and allow rangers to monitor the movements of people as far away as several miles. After Richard Branson, owner of a number of Virgin properties, announced that he would be offering space tours via Virgin Galactic in , EADS Astrium, the space wing of the European defense giant, announced in that it would be offering 1.

The space ship, which has yet to be built, would take off like an ordinary jet before lighting its rocket. More prosaically, most effort in the space division of aerospace is devoted to the design, launching and maintenance of satellites for GPS devices, communications, weather prediction and research, television and radio.

Working in the Industry According to the AIA Aerospace Industries Association , in , million people were employed in the aerospace industry, and only about half of those jobs were in manufacturing.

In addition to engineers, defense industry employers are perennially seeking employees with security clearances. In order to obtain one, an employer either a corporation or the government must sponsor an employee, who must be a U.

In order to woo their newest hires, major aerospace firms like Boeing and Lockheed Martin are getting all Web 2. Boeing lured in potential job seekers with the promise of a shot at winning an iPod, as well as sponsoring a Facebook group for former interns. Now what? What went wrong? What was your role in the situation? What was the outcome?

If so, how did you find out what you needed to know? Only U. Looking up In the long term, both the aerospace and defense industries are poised to grow. Growth in this sector might be tempered by an economic downturn in the U. The U. Fairfield, CT Phone: Fax: www. Bethesda, MD Phone: Fax: www. Cleveland, OH Phone: Fax: www. Waltham, MA Phone: Fax: www. Providence, Rl Phone: Fax: www. Allied industries provide the infrastmcture that makes this possible, including rail and road transportation, pesticides and fertilizers, and processors that transform raw products into comestibles.

Looking at the numbers, the agriculture industry is a massive undertaking. To feed the protein-ravenous masses, more than , cattle and , hogs are slaughtered every day in the U. Cotton and wool are agricultural products, as are animal byproducts, ornamental plants, tobacco, lumber and the various fhiits and grains used to produce alcohol. The industry, unsurprisingly, is huge, accounting for 1 percent of U.

The farmer’s dilemma Despite its significant contribution to the GDP, agriculture is very risky and often unprofitable. Profit margins, especially for crops such as soybeans, wheat and com, are very low, so these plants are frequently grown on large, industrial farms, as tiny returns per acre make small-scale farming economically unfeasible. Emits and vegetables offer higher returns on lower acreage, but the investment in plants, soil preparation and the necessary labor-intensive harvesting makes the likelihood of farmers breaking even in the first few years unlikely.

Farmers are also at the mercy of pests, plant diseases and weather, the king of all X-factors. While insecticides and pest- and disease-resistant strains of plants can mitigate these risks, they of course cannot be entirely controlled. Further complicating matters is the fact that commodities such as com, soybeans, and wheat are subject to market forces. To wit: a good harvest suppresses the price of a commodity and lowers profits, while a poor one raises prices but causes shortages.

This inverse relationship between productivity and profit has plagued agribusiness for decades. Government subsidies for com, wheat, milk, cotton and a number of other farm products also affect the equation. All of the issues detailed above have forced the consolidation of farms and processing firms. ConAgra, at one time a major farming firm, is currently divesting its agricultural business to focus on branded and value-added packaged foods. Meanwhile, Bayer, Dow and DuPont all have a stake in biotech, fungicides and pesticides, each with its own crop sciences division.

Monsanto, meanwhile, is a leader in the genetic engineering field. When you think of com, what initially comes to mind is probably something edible: creamy com on the cob dripping with golden butter, crisp, salty com chips or sweet sodas. Archer Daniels Midland is one of the largest agricultural processors in the world, turning oilseeds like soybeans , com, wheat and nuts into food products like flour, sweeteners and emulsifiers, as well as plant-derived wood preservatives, industrial starches which become everything from wallboard to glue and ethanol.

Fueling a greener future Demand for biofuel has made the past few years a boom time for com producers like Archer Daniels Midland. The flurry of activity around the hot new fuel has caused com prices to spike and com production to swell—farmers planted In its purest form, biodiesel releases 75 percent less carbon dioxide than petroleum diesel. The growing popularity of biodiesel has increased demand for soybeans whose oil is commonly used for biodiesel , as production of the fuel tripled from to alone, reaching 75 million gallons a year.

Bean there, done that Biodiesel aside, soybeans have taken a bit of a beating as of late, due to the sudden and resounding condemnation of trans fats in American foods. Soybean farmers are being pressured to grow beans low in linolenic acid a substance that causes soybean oil to go rancid , thereby eliminating the need for hydrogenation while keeping the soybean oil flavor intact. Rather, agribusiness is as tech-focused and cutting-edge as every other industry these days.

Steroids, hormones and antibiotics, for example, are routinely administered to U. Hormones are also applied to fiuits and vegetables. In order to ship Suit long distances, it must be picked before it is fully ripe to withstand the trip. Once it reaches its destination, it is treated with ethylene, the chemical which, in nature, causes fiuits to ripen.

Modem poultry flocks, for instance, are so large that sick animals frequently carmot be isolated, so producers treat all the birds that may have come into contact with the infected individual by adding antibiotics to their drinking water. Feed lot-fattened, corn-fed cattle must be given antibiotics, too, lest the distress caused their digestive tracts by eating com kill them. Antibiotics are more widely used in subtherapeutic doses, or doses not large enough to cure an infection, a practice that encourages the proliferation of antibiotic-resistant bacteria much as with a human who takes antibiotics at the first sign of every sniffle.

Without competition, resistant bacteria can spread rapidly throughout a population and subsequently be transferred to people who eat raw or undercooked meat. Begun, this clone war has Beyond antibiotics and hormones, recent biotech advances have become major issues in the agriculture industry. While farmers have been selecting crops for higher yield, greater disease resistance, better flavor and other desirable qualities for the last 12, odd years, we are now able to manipulate individual genes in order to express specific traits.

Genetic engineering has produced Golden Rice, designed to accumulate vitamin A—insufficient quantities of which can cause blindness and even death in children—in the edible portion of the grain, a boon for cultures in which rice is the staple crop and a varied diet imassured. Researchers are looking into growing oral vaccines for hepatitis B and HIV in tomatoes, potatoes, and even tobacco. Embedding dmgs in plants promises a less expensive method than traditional vaccine production, which would make large- scale vaccination of the populations of poorer countries possible.

Today, nearly all soy and half of the com grown in the U. Scientists are also begirming to explore these methods for use on animals, seeking to increase egg and milk production, change fat content and speed maturity.

Genetically modified varieties of catfish and tilapia, designed to grow faster, are already for sale in some countries, while bulls are being cloned in order to improve the breeding stock of cattle. Pet fish implanted with genes that produce luminescent proteins have been available for purchase since However, such tinkering has spawned a number of advocacy groups that fear unforeseen consequences. Many groups argue that direct genetic manipulation could produce harmful side effects that simple hybridization and crossbreeding would not, while others warn that herbicide residue might remain in the tissues of resistant plant varieties, or that engineered genes might cross into wild plant populations.

The debate rages on, on a global scale: Mexico barred biotech companies from planting genetically- modified com within its borders in October That same month, Japan increased its testing of rice imported from the U. The organic green giant Consumers, motivated by concerns about the above, as well as factory farming, animal cmelty and the health of the environment, are increasingly demanding organic, ethically-treated, free-range, and antibiotic- and hormone-free food products.

That year, organics accounted for 2. Many businesses are taking advantage of this surge in organic interest. The supermarket chain Whole Foods, started in and one of the more popular purveyors of organic produce, has the highest profit margin per square foot of any grocery store.

At the other end of the spectmm, Wal-Mart began offering organic products in Faced Visit Vault at www. You just can’t get good help these days Despite the increasing reliance on machinery to do the grunt work of the agriculture industry, there are still some jobs that require that human touch. A solution to the problem remains elusive; an immigration bill that would give illegal immigrants a chance to obtain legal status was defeated in the Senate in June , making meatpackers and farmers worry about increased raids and dwindling applicants.

Picking up the bill Every so often Uncle Sam takes a look at the current policies aimed at aiding the agriculture industry in the form of the highly contentious Farm Bill. The incarnation will determine the direction of the agriculture industry for the next five years, taking rmder its aegis a broad range of ag-related issues including genetic modification of crops, organic farming, nutrition and farm subsidies. Government subsidies have a big impact on the American diet, since subsidized crops are less risky for farmers to produce, and thus cheaper for consumers to buy.

Another bone of contention in the pending farm bill has to do with the influx of imported food. Consumer groups want that imported food to be labeled as such, arguing that Joe American has a right to know from whence came his beef.

Opponents namely, the meat lobby say that the cost of such labeling would overburden the industry, and have successfully limited such labeling to seafood despite legislation requiring country-of-origin labeling on meat, produce and nuts.

However, in light of recent scares regarding imported foods—including the massive pet food recall in March due to tainted wheat gluten from China, and the subsequent closing of Chinese food plants in June after a nationwide inspection—those calling for enforced labeling of imported food are likely to find more sympathetic ears in Congress, analysts say.

From farmhand to finance An enormous range of man- and womanpower is required to keep the culture of agriculture humming along. The agriculture industry is exceptionally diverse when you consider the number of different segments it encompasses. Operations include fish hatcheries, apple orchards, flower nurseries, slaughterhouses and more.

Fann workers who account for 90 percent of industry employees require minimal training, but the Bureau of Labor Statistics BUS expects that more efficient machinery will reduce the number of such jobs in the future. However, small-scale farming, especially of the organic variety, is expected to grow.

Agricultural graders sort products, such as fruits and eggs, and inspectors evaluate the cleanliness of processing facilities. These professionals generally require both an agriculture degree and a background in the field.

The agriculture industry has plenty of opportunities for those who want to avoid getting their hands dirty, as well. Commodities merchants are needed to buy and sell grain, cocoa and other articles of commerce to ensure a consistent supply. Ecologists consult for the farming world as consumers and the government grew more concerned about the environmental impact of factory farming on the land and ecosystems. Along with the usual jobs in HR, sales and IT, lawyers and MBAs are needed to keep good business practices and make sure everyone plays by the mles.

Although agriculture has been around since, oh, say, the dawn of modem man, the industry is constantly trolling for advanced technologies and the scientists who create them. Chemists come up with coloring and flavoring agents and new uses for agricultural byproducts. Agricultural scientists devise new food-processing methods, study soil and animal management, and frequently consult for the government or food processing companies. Bioengineers tweak genetic codes to create herbicide- resistant plants, Mexican jumping beans that can do the Lindy hop, or whatever other special function is required of an organism.

Agricultural engineers design farm equipment for increased efficiency and reduced environmental impact. Depending on the career path they wish to pursue, these people generally have advanced degrees.

The BLS reports that the agricultural scientist and engineer industries, specifically, are expected to grow by 14 percent between and Vault: Tell me a little bit about your position at ADM. Barbee: I primarily work on new business development, looking at the possibility of new products in my division to see what will be profitable for the company.

I take a look at competition. Also, as it is important to keep open lines of communication with our customers, I will go out on sales calls to see what ADM products are working best for them or what could be changed. Vault: Who are these customers?

ADM products go into food, animal feed, fuel and industrial products, so as a company we have customers in all of those markets.

Vault: As a product manager, what types of positions are your main customer contacts? Barbee: I interact with research and development, as well as purchasing. With purchasing, I discuss the price of our products. Vault: Is there a particular product set you work on? Barbee: Yes. These are additives that go into food and industrial products. Vault: Tell me a little bit about your background. Where did you earn your MBA? Vault: Was it a full-time or part-time program?

At the time, I was working for a different company as a financial analyst. Once I earned my MBA, I joined ADM as an assistant product manager for lecithin, a release agent you can find in cooking spray and chocolates, among other things. Vault: How did you end up transitioning from your finance background into your current position? Were you looking for a change? Barbee: Actually, when I was in graduate school, one of my professors asked me what I was currently doing. As I told him I was in finance, he told me I was in the wrong profession, and that I needed to get in sales.

As a product manager. It was a perfect fit. Vault: So what is the project cycle like? How long does it take to launch a new product? Barbee: It takes about 18 months to two years to get a new product out.

Vault: And how many would you release in a year? Products can be tweaked many different times before they are released. There are usually about eight to 10 products in the pipeline.

Vault: Does your involvement with a product end once the product is approved? Barbee: No. From there a plant is built, and while the plant is being built, I interact with the plant to make sure everything is OK. Our main goal is to use our resources to help meet the needs of today and tomorrow for our customers. With marketing. Vault: What is the most recent product you launched?

Barbee: Calcium citrate. Barbee: I would probably say marketing and finance. Also, just being a leader in a group. My cost accounting skills definitely play a huge role in launching a new product. Vault: How do you find working for a large employer like ADM? ADM tends to attract and hire the best people. There are also benefits working at the headquarters of a large organization.

At that wellness center, there is also a medical facility with an on-site doctor that employees can use. The allure of brand management Marketing encompasses a wide variety of meanings and activities.

Some marketing positions are very close to sales, while others set overarching marketing strategy. What marketing positions have in common is the sense of ownership over the product or service, as well as the need to understand customer needs and desires and translate those needs into some kind of marketing communication, advertising campaign or sales effort.

The manager of product or service marketing is called the brand manager—he or she is the ruler of that marketing universe. The business world is now realizing that strong brands and solid marketing programs drive shareholder value, and that companies can no longer make fundamental strategy decisions without truly understanding how to market a product. The titles of brand manager, product manager and to a lesser extent, marketing manager are often used to describe the same function—some companies use one title, others use another.

Marketing manager tends to be used in industries other than consumer packaged goods; product manager is often used in tech industries. How important is the individual brand manager? Consider the company to determine the level of brand manager responsibility.

The first factor: the size of the company relative to its number of brands. For a company with hundreds of different brands—Nabisco, for example—brand managers, or even assistant brand managers, may have a great deal of power over a specific brand. At companies with a few core products, brand managers will focus on narrower aspects of a brand. Global brand managers are more strategic, concentrating on issues such as protecting brand equity and developing product offerings that can be rolled out into subsidiaries.

Local brand managers are more tactical. Local managers focus on executing global plans that are delivered to them, and tweak them for local consumers. Also know that with the increasing trend toward globalization and the truly global presence of certain brands, companies have sought to impose more centralization and tighter controls on the marketing of those brands from country to country. In the past, individual country Visit Vault at www.

Now, companies have established tighter guidelines on what can be done with regard to a brand around the world, with the goal of protecting and enhancing the value of the brand and ensuring a consistent product and message worldwide. Finally, consumer goods companies place varying levels of importance on their brand or marketing departments.

Some companies, such as the Ford Motor Company, are driven as much by financial analyses of production costs or operations considerations as by marketing. The level of emphasis on finance or operations matters at a firm will influence not only the independence and authority of marketing managers, but also potential marketing career paths. At some companies, marketing is the training ground for general management.

At General Mills, marketing is considered so important that employees in other functions who show promise are plucked from their positions and put into the department. Careers in Marketing Taking charge of a brand involves tackling many diverse job functions—and different subspecialties.

Brand management In a typical brand management organizational stmcture, positions are developed around responsibility for a particular product rather than a specific functional expertise i. In brand management, the marketing function is responsible for key general management decisions such as long-term business strategy, pricing, product development direction and, in some cases, profit and loss responsibility.

Brand management offers a terrific way to learn intensively about a particular product category you could be a recognized expert on tampons! The core of brand work is brand strategy. Brand managers must decide how to increase market share, which markets and demographic groups to target, and what types of advertising and special promotions to use. In both cases, the brands have benefited from a shift in brand identity, and consequently, a shift in their market.

Brand identity is normally created and confirmed through traditional print, radio and TV advertising. Advertising is usually produced by outside agencies, although brand insiders determine the emphasis and target of the advertising. It is the job of the brand manager to influence the performance of those groups— over whom he or she has no direct authority—in order to optimize the performance of his or her brand or product line.

Direct marketing Ever wonder who is responsible for making those coupons you receive in the mail? You can thank direct marketers. Direct marketers are masters in one-to- one marketing. Direct marketers assemble databases of individual consumers who fit within their target market, go after them with a personal approach, and manage the production process from strategy inception to out-the-door distribution. It operates in multiple media such as the Web, telemarketing and in-store promotions.

Marketers are able to track the online habits and behavior of customers. They can then serve up customized banner advertisements that are much more likely to be relavant to them. Many consumers have agreed to receive promotional offers on certain subjects— marketers can then send them targeted e-mail messages that allow for much easier access to purchase or action a click on a link, for example than a conventional mail direct marketing programs.

Marketers must manage the relationship between any two entities. If Disney wants to promote the cartoon du jour with McDonalds, or Pepsi wants to make sure that all Six Flags theme parks have a Pepsi Ride, then marketers ensure both parties are getting what they need out of the deal and staying true to their own brand image. On the other hand, brand managers always have some pricing leeway that can greatly affect market share and profitability.

Sometimes it makes more sense to win market share while taking lower profits. How do brand managers justify their prices? Through extensive research.

Paper towels, for example, may be much more price-sensitive than a luxury item like engagement rings or foie gras. At some companies, such as those that sell largely through mail order, or those with complex pricing systems, pricing and promotional offers may be limited to what the operational sales system can handle. The forecasts are used to determine production levels. Once a year, brand groups draw up budgets for their production, advertising and promotion costs, try to convince the finance folks that they absolutely need that amount, get less than they ask for, and then rework their budgets to fit the given budget.

Many people choose to enter the world of high-tech marketing because they want to work with products and technologies that reshape and improve the word around us. These marketers feel that they would rather change the way a person interacts with the world in a sophisticated way, rather than spend time understanding what hair color teenagers find most appealing.

High tech marketers spend much of their time understanding research and development issues and working on new product launches. Technology companies like Intel, Dell, and Microsoft have recognized the power of branding and are utilizing traditional marketing tactics more and more. Marketing a service or software product versus a more tangible product is a bit different.

It may be a bit more challenging to understand how consumers relate to the product. Inventory and distribution issues may be tracked differently. Market research If you are an analytical person who enjoys numbers and analysis, and enjoys tracking consumer behavior, then market research may be the field for you.

A product is much more effective when a company understands the consumer it is targeting. Market researchers employ a variety of different qualitative and quantitative research techniques to understand consumers. Researchers who find that consumers associate lemon scents with cleanliness, for example, may suggest that cleansers could drive up sales by adding a lemon aroma.

Marketing consulting Although most well-known consulting firms are known for their expertise in general strategy, many consulting firms now hire industry or functional experts that focus on marketing issues. These firms need people with expertise in the areas of branding, market research, continuous relationship marketing, pricing strategy and business-to-business marketing—they tend to hire people with previous marketing experience and value consultants who have been successful marketing managers and have lived through the full range of business issues from the inside.

McKinsey and Monitor are two general strategy finns that have begun to hire marketing specialists. Other boutique marketing consulting firms, such as Kurt Salmon, focus on certain product categories like beverages, health care and retail. Major ad agencies are also attempting to reinvent themselves as marketing partners focused on marketing strategy beyond simple advertising. You must learn how to balance your time and prioritize. It is very easy to get comfortable maintaining the businesses rather than creating new opportunities.

A more realistic look at a day in the life of a brand manager a. Get into work. Listen to voicemails. Check e-mails. Meet with market research department to discuss specifics of your latest round of quantitative research. Budget meeting to detennine how you will be spending second quarter funds. Given the decision to spend more money on research, you might need to cancel an instant redeemable coupon or a local promotion in a poorly performing market. You head to the long-awaited product development meeting.

Your team has recently discussed reformulating your product to take advantage of new technology. The group must decide whether these changes are strategically and financially justified.

As always, very few people agree. You decide to summarize all the costs and benefits to the project and present the issues to your brand manager at the status meeting you have scheduled for the end of the day. A fancy lunch with a People magazine salesperson. For months the magazine has tried to convince you that your product should be advertised in People.

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